German physicist Werner Heisenberg was a leader in physics, winning the 1932 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the uncertainty principle, which states that it is impossible to specify the exact position and momentum of a particle (tiny piece of matter) at the same time.
Joseph Heller was a popular and respected writer whose first and best-known novel, Catch-22 (1961), was considered a classic piece of literature in the second half of the twentieth century.
Lillian Hellman, American playwright, wrote a series of powerful, realistic plays that made her one of America's major dramatists. She explored highly controversial themes, with many of her plays reflecting her outspoken political and social views.
Ernest Hemingway, American Nobel Prize-winning author, was one of the most celebrated and influential literary stylists of the twentieth century. His critical reputation rests solidly upon a small body of exceptional writing, set apart by its style, emotional content, and dramatic intensity of vision.
Jimi Hendrix was one of the most original electric guitarists of all time, combining blues, hard rock, modern jazz, and soul into his own unmistakable sound. He was also a gifted songwriter.
Henry VIII was king of England from 1509 to 1547. He established the Church of England and strengthened the position of king.
Patrick Henry, American orator (public speaker) and lawyer, was a leader in Virginia politics for thirty years. He became famous for the forceful and intelligent way he spoke that persuaded people to believe in, and act upon, his beliefs.
Audrey Hepburn was a popular movie actress who won an Academy Award in 1954 for her work in Roman Holiday. She also worked with the United Nations to improve the lives of the poor, especially children.
For over fifty years Katharine Hepburn was a successful actress on the stage and on the screen, delighting audiences with her energy, her grace, and her determination.
Herod the Great, king of Judea, was an example of a class of princes who kept their thrones by balancing the delicate relations with the Roman Empire. Herod's much-criticized relationship with Rome would keep Judea safe and establish a Jewish state.
The German-born English astronomer (scientist who studies stars and planets) Sir William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus, the motion of the sun in space, and the form of the Milky Way.
Norwegian anthropologist (scientist of human beings—their culture, numbers, characteristics, and relationships) Thor Heyerdahl popularized ideas about common links among ancient cultures worldwide. He was well known for his ocean journeys on primitive rafts and boats that were recorded in books, films, and television programs.
Edmund Hillary was one of the greatest explorers and mountaineers of the twentieth century. His conquest of Mount Everest and the South Pole inspired generations of adventurers and dreamers.
Often considered the most successful novelist for the junior high and high school audience, S. E.
The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates is called the father of medicine. He changed the course of Greek medicine with his certainty that disease was not caused by gods or spirits but was the result of natural action.
Hirohito was the 124th emperor of Japan. He reigned during a period of internal unrest, foreign expansion, international war, and national defeat.
Alfred Hitchcock was a film director famous for well-made suspense thrillers such as Strangers on a Train, Rear Window, and Psycho. He was interested in showing the terror in everyday situations.
The German dictator Adolf Hitler led the extreme nationalist and racist Nazi party and served as chancellor-president of Germany from 1933 to 1945. Arguably one of the most effective and powerful leaders of the twentieth century, his leadership led to the deaths of nearly six million Jews.
Ho Chi Minh was the founder and first leader of the Vietnamese Communist Party. He led the movement for Vietnamese independence and unity through struggles with France and the United States.
The English philosopher and political theorist Thomas Hobbes was one of the central figures of political thought behind the British Empire. His major Reproduced by permission of Archive Photos, Inc.
Billie Holiday was an African American jazz vocalist who perhaps showed the most expression of feeling of any singer in jazz history.
American physician, teacher, and author Oliver Wendell Holmes contributed to the advancement of medicine and literature.
As a Supreme Court justice and a legal writer, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. was a key figure in the debate concerning the role of law in a rapidly changing America during the early twentieth century.
H omer, the major figure in ancient Greek literature, has been considered the greatest poet of classical antiquity (ancient times). He wrote both the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems (long narrative poems) surviving in a surprisingly large number of manuscripts.
An independent person in a country not known for its willingness to accept nonconformists (those that do not cooperate with customs), Soichiro Honda created an automobile giant despite the opposition of the Japanese government. One of his company's cars, the Accord, was a best-selling model in the American market.
Writer, professor, and social critic, bell hooks is undeniably one of the most successful "cross-over" academics of the late twentieth century. Her books look at the function of race and gender in today's culture.
Benjamin Hooks was an executive director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and is the first African American board member of the Federal Communications Commission.
I n addition to his successes on radio, in movies, on television, and in live shows, Bob Hope entertained members of the American military all over the world and made many appearances to benefit different charities.